1. W. Montgomery Watt is a Scottish Orientalist .
  2. The Genuine Islam” Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936.
  3. English theosophist, philosopher, and political figure who advocated home rule and educational reforms in India.
  4. That is to attest that Allah exists, and that He is the Creator of this universe, its Owner and its Proprietor and the One Who disposes of all its affairs. He is the One Who causes all things to happen; nothing comes into existence except if He wills it, and nothing occurs except if He desires it.
  5. It is to attest that Allah is the only true god, Who deserves to be worshipped, and all acts of worship must be dedicated to Him alone.
  6. That is to believe in the uniqueness of His Names and Attributes and that the Beautiful Names and Attributes belong to Allah (I) and that He is far removed from every imperfection.
  7. Haskins, Charles Homer, 1870–1937, American historian, an authority on medieval history.
  8. William H. Allen, Dictionary of Technical Terms of Aerospace, First Edition.
  9. Speeches Delivered in India, London 1890, p. 24
  10. Emotion as the Basis of Civilization, London, 1928, pp. 265, 269
  11. Islam – Her Moral and Spiritual Value, London, 1927, pp. 20-21
  12. Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History
  13. G. Lemaître (1927). «Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques». Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels 47A: 41. Translated in: (1931) «A homogeneous universe of constant mass and growing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae». Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 91: 483 – 490. Astronomy and Cosmonogy, Sir James H. Jeans, pg. 15
  14. Astronomy and Cosmonogy, Sir James H. Jeans, pg. 15 Astronomy and Cosmonogy, Sir James H. Jeans, pg. 15
  15. V. Slipher, paper presented to the American Astronomical Society (1915)
  16. Edwin Hubble (1929). «A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae». Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 15: 168–173.
  17. Any of a class of particles, such as the photon, pion, or alpha particle, that has zero or integral spin and obey statistical rules permitting any number of identical particles to occupy the same quantum state.
  18. Dr. Zaghlool An-nadjaar, As-samaa (The Sky).
  19. For further information see:
  20. See The Merck Manual, 18th Edition under altitude sickness.
  21. He was the chief of the surgical clinic at the University of Paris.
  22. The Bible, The Qur’an and Science
  23. Abdul-Ahad Omar) is a Canadian Muslim. He is notable for being a former Christian theologian and minister who converted to Islam.
  24. He is the world-renowned embryologist. He was the former president of the Canadian Association of Anatomists, Department of Anatomy and cell biology, University of Toronto
  25. Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer is course director and associate professor of Medical Embryology at the Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
  26. White, Harvey E. Modern College Physics, van Nostrand 1948
  27. Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27 Also see: Oceans, Day, Trevor, p. 46-7
  28. Oceanography, Gross, p. 205
  29. See Earth Science, Tarbuck, Edward J.; Lutgens, Frederick J, pp. 509-525. Also see Mountain Meteorology, Whiteman, David C., pp. 100-116.
  30. See The Atmosphere, Anthes, Richard A.; John J. Cahir; Alistair B. Fraser; and Hans A. Panofsky, p. 269. Also see the Elements of Meteorology, Miller and Thompson, pp. 141-142. Also see: Earth Science Today, Murphy, Brendan; Nance, Damian. pg 346.
  31. The Bible, The Qur’an and Science
  32. Earth, Press and Siever, p. 435. Also see Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. 157. Also see: The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, El-Naggar, p. 5 Also see: Earth Science Today, Murphy, Bren-dan; Nance, Damian. pg 107.
  33. The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Qur’an, El-Naggar, p. 5. Also see: Mountain Chains from World of Earth Science.
  34. Towards Understanding Islam pg. 3.